Worldwide (poly)phenol intake: assessment methods and identified gaps

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Introduction: (Poly)phenols (PPs) are plant secondary metabolites widely distributed in dietary sources, and several evidences show that consumption of PP has a positive impact in human health. However, the correct estimation of food intake and the estimation of PP content of foods are essential to associate PPs intake with health effects. Purpose: This review aimed to gather information from several studies on PP intake in different countries, compare methods used for both assessment of food intake and PP quantification and highlight existing gaps and future directions. Methods: Twenty-four studies of PP intake from thirteen countries were selected for analysis. The selected studies included assessment of all plant food groups contributing to PP intake, total PP content and/or content of major classes (flavonoids or phenolic acids), a large study population and both genders. Results and Conclusion: Most studies presented daily intakes of extractable (poly)phenols. Very few studies have determined intake of non-extractable (poly)phenols, which is a very important fraction of PPs contributing to total PP intake. High heterogeneity was observed among countries regarding the intake of total PP intake and the two main PP classes. This may reflect not only different diet patterns, but also different methods used for collecting food consumption data and estimation of PP content. Thus, criteria of harmonization are suggested regarding assessment of food intake, determination of PP content in foods and validation with biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1393-1408
Number of pages16
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017


  • Biomarkers
  • Diet
  • Flavonoids
  • Food intake
  • Non-extractable polyphenols
  • Phenolic acids


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