pH is a vital physiological parameter that can be used for disease diagnosis and treatment as well as in monitoring other biological processes. Metal/metal oxide based pH sensors have several advantages regarding their reliability, miniaturization, and cost-effectiveness, which are critical characteristics for in vivo applications. In this work, WO3 nanoparticles were electrodeposited on flexible substrates over metal electrodes with a sensing area of 1 mm(2). These sensors show a sensitivity of -56.7 +/- 1.3 mV/pH, in a wide pH range of 9 to 5. A proof of concept is also demonstrated using a flexible reference electrode in solid electrolyte with a curved surface. A good balance between the performance parameters (sensitivity), the production costs, and simplicity of the sensors was accomplished, as required for wearable biomedical devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12226-12234
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 13 Aug 2014


  • electrodeposition
  • flexible
  • hydrothermal synthesis
  • lightweight
  • pH sensor
  • tungsten oxide nanoparticles


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