Wire and arc additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel/Inconel 625 functionally graded material: Development and characterization

Tiago A. Rodrigues, Francisco Werley Cipriano Farias, Kaiping Zhang, A. Shamsolhodaei, Jiajia Shen, N. Zhou, Norbert Schell, Jan Capek, E. Polatidis, Telmo G. Santos, J. P. Oliveira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)
132 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

In this work, a 316L stainless steel to Inconel 625 functionally graded material (FGM) was built using different deposition strategies (named as direct and smooth-type interfaces) by Twin-Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (T-WAAM). This combination of materials is of interest in chemical plants, oil & gas, and nuclear applications, where high corrosion and wear resistance are essential requirements. Although these properties are superior in Inconel 625, replacing Inconel with stainless steel in strategic regions of structural components can reduce the overall costs and parts' weight. Both direct and smooth transition interfaces were tested and characterized. Microscopic analysis revealed that each interface and the as-built samples had an austenitic matrix, and every sample was well bonded and free of defects. Different types of microstructures evolved at the interfaces due to distinct gradients in composition. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the smooth-gradient produced secondary phases, such as δ-phase (Ni3Nb) and carbides, that were not present with the direct interface strategy. Overall, the properties were superior in the FGM with a direct interface, which experienced higher strengths and elongations upon failure. Moreover, neutron diffraction measurements revealed that lower residual stresses developed in the direct interface FGM than in the smooth gradient FGM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-251
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Volume21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • Functionally graded material (FGM)
  • Inconel 625
  • Stainless steel 316
  • Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM)

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