White Settlers' Anti-Fascist and Anti-Colonial Movements in Angola (1930-1945)

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This article analyses anti-fascist and anti-colonial political efforts carried out by white settlers in Angola, against Salazar’s colonial dictatorship, between 1930 and 1945. It begins with an analysis of the origins and characteristics of the settlers’ political protest, considering in particular the conflicted relationships between the colonists and the Estado Novo in the 1930s. The article then analyses the secessionist conspiracy in 1940/1941, which was promoted by a group of anti-fascist settlers in Angola, in close connection with the Union of South Africa. Additionally, the article deals with the action of an anti-colonial political organisation named Organização Socialista de Angola (OSA), which was the first Euro-African nationalist movement in Angola. OSA was mostly formed by young Angolan-born whites and mestiços, who demanded full political independence as well as the end of discrimination against all Angolans. However, OSA was severely repressed by the Portuguese authorities, and a number of anti-fascist settlers, including the Vicar General of the Catholic Church, were arrested and deported to Portugal. Nonetheless, despite the repression exerted by the dictatorship, the settlers’ political protest, which was both anti-fascist and anti-colonial, had relevant repercussions in Angola, having contributed to the political structuring of Angolan nationalism in the 1940s.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-99
Number of pages25
JournalSouth African Historical Journal
Issue number1
Early online date26 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Portuguese colonialism
  • Angola
  • white settlers
  • Estado Novo
  • anti-fascism


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