Waste management strategies to mitigate the effects of fluorinated greenhouse gases on climate change

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Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) are used for various applications, such as in refrigeration and air conditioning, as substitutes of the ozone-depleting substances. Their utilization has increased drastically over the last few decades, with serious consequences for global warming. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and several national and international legislations, such as the 2014 EU F-gas Regulation, aim to control the utilization and emissions of these gases. In the EU, the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) is underway, with successive reductions in quotas up to 2050. Under this scenario, efficient strategies for managing the produced and already existing F-gases are of vital importance to guarantee that their effect on the environment is mitigated. Up to now, most of the F-gases recovered from end-of-life equipment or when retrofitting systems are either released into the atmosphere or destroyed. However, in order to put forward a cost-efficient adaptation to the F-gas phase-down, increasing separation and recycling efforts must be made. This critical review aims at providing a revision of the current F-gas management problems and strategies and providing an overview on the innovative strategies that can be applied to contribute to build a sustainable market under circular economy principles.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4367
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2021


  • Circular economy
  • Climate change
  • Fluorinated greenhouse gases
  • Gas separation
  • Refrigerant reclamation
  • Refrigerant recycling
  • WEEE


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