BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are driven by JAK-STAT pathway activation, but epigenetic alterations also play an important pathophysiological role. These can be pharmacologically manipulated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which have proven to be clinically effective in the treatment of MPNs but exhibit dose-limiting toxicity. The treatment of primary MPN cells with vorinostat modulates the expression of genes associated with apoptosis, cell cycle, inflammation, and signaling. The induction of this transcriptional program results in decreased cellular viability, paralleled by a decrease in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro manipulation of ROS levels revealed that the reduction of ROS levels promoted apoptosis. When vorinostat was combined with antioxidant agents, the apoptosis of MPN cells increased in a synergistic manner. The results described here suggest a novel and promising therapeutic strategy combining HDACIs with ROS-reducing agents to treat MPNs.