Fire stations (FS) are typically non-uniformly distributed across space, and their service area is, in general, defined based on administrative boundaries. Since the location of FS may considerably influence the readiness and the effectiveness of the provided services, national and regional governments need research-based information to adequately plan where to establish firefighting facilities. In this study, we propose a method to reconfigure the fire stations layout using spatial point process models, clustering and space partitioning. First, modelling fire intensity variation across space through a point process model enables to replicate the process independently by simulation. Subsequently, for each simulation, the k-means algorithm is used to define a siting location, minimizing the total within distance between the fire occurrences and the new position. This method allows to obtain a set of locations from which the respective distribution is inferred. Assuming a bivariate normal spatial distribution, we further define confidence siting regions. Ultimately, new FS service areas are defined by Voronoi tessellation. To exemplify the application of the method, we apply it to reconfigure the fire station layout at Aveiro, Portugal.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Data Science and Analytics
Early online date4 Oct 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Oct 2023


  • Fire
  • Fire stations
  • k-means
  • Poisson point process
  • Voronoi tessellation


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