Using distinctive colour signatures to capture team behaviour during matches

José Pedro Silva, Duarte Araújo, A. Jorge Parola, João Carlos Lima, Fernando Nabais, Nuno Cardoso

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


To capture team behaviour, kinematic variables, such as the surface area and the geometrical centre of the team, have been used. Although these variables have shown interesting results in capturing team behaviour, they reduce individual differences to a unique measure, losing the contribution of each player to the team. Using infrared (IR) dyes, it is possible for each player to have a distinctive colour signature to capture their behaviour online. The first stage of this study consisted in the selection of appropriate IR dyes with peak absorbance at different wavelengths (800nm, 910nm, 949nm and 1031nm) that were dissolved in solutions and diluted two times with a 1/5 ratio. To assess the contrast between the solutions, they were applied in a 6 × 4 chessboard. A unique colour signature was made composing an image from three different charge-coupled devices (CCDs) (one in the visible spectral region and two in the near IR) that were used like the RGB colour system. The IR markers absorbing at shorter wavelengths (800nm and 910nm) have a darker tone in the range 750-900nm and appear white between 900-1900nm. The markers with longer absorption wavelengths have a dark tone in both regions. We calibrated the images from the three CCDs and composed an image in which we give a different colour signature to each square. It is possible to create distinctive colour signatures using the coordinates from three different images.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationENGINEERING OF SPORT 10
Place of PublicationAmterdam
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event10th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA 2014) - Sheffield, United Kingdom
Duration: 14 Jul 201417 Jul 2014
Conference number: 10th

Publication series

NameProcedia Engineering
PublisherElsevier Ltd
ISSN (Print)1877-7058


Conference10th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association (ISEA 2014)
Abbreviated titleISEA 2014
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • Colour signature
  • Infrared
  • Tracking system


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