Urinary proteome and metabolome in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris): The effect of chronic kidney disease

Enea Ferlizza, Gloria Isani, Francesco Dondi, Giulia Andreani, Katerina Vasylyeva, Elisa Bellei, André M. Almeida, Manolis Matzapetakis

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive and irreversible disease. Although urine is an ideal biological sample for proteomics and metabolomics studies, sensitive and specific biomarkers are currently lacking in dogs. This study characterised dog urine proteome and metabolome aiming to identify and possibly quantify putative biomarkers of CKD in dogs. Twenty-two healthy dogs and 28 dogs with spontaneous CKD were selected and urine samples were collected. Urinary proteome was separated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by mass spectrometry, while urinary metabolome was analysed in protein-depleted samples by 1D 1H NMR spectra. The most abundant proteins in urine samples from healthy dogs were uromodulin, albumin and, in entire male dogs, arginine esterase. In urine samples from CKD dogs, the concentrations of uromodulin and albumin were significantly lower and higher, respectively, than in healthy dogs. In addition, these samples were characterised by a more complex protein pattern indicating mixed glomerular (protein bands ≥65 kDa) and tubular (protein bands <65 kDa) proteinuria. Urine spectra acquired by NMR allowed the identification of 86 metabolites in healthy dogs, belonging to 49 different pathways mainly involved in amino acid metabolism, purine and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis or tricarboxylic acid cycle. Seventeen metabolites showed significantly different concentrations when comparing healthy and CKD dogs. In particular, carnosine, trigonelline, and cis-aconitate, might be suggested as putative biomarkers of CKD in dogs. Significance: Urine is an ideal biological sample, however few proteomics and metabolomics studies investigated this fluid in dogs and in the context of CKD (chronic kidney disease). In this research, applying a multi-omics approach, new insights were gained regarding the molecular changes triggered by this disease in canine urinary proteome and metabolome. In particular, the involvement of the tubular component was highlighted, suggesting uromodulin, trigonelline and carnosine as possible biomarkers of CKD in dogs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103795
JournalJournal of Proteomics
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2020


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