Unveiling the 6,8-Rearrangement in 8-Phenyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavylium and 8-Methyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavylium through Host–Guest Complexation

Nuno Basílio, João Carlos Lima, Luís Cruz, Victor de Freitas, Fernando Pina, Hiroki Ando, Yuki Kimura, Kin Ichi Oyama, Kumi Yoshida

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Abstract

8-Phenyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavylium and 8-methyl-5,7-dihydroxyflavylium were synthesized to observe the 6,8-rearrangement. 8-Phenyl and 8-methyl residues were introduced by Suzuki–Miyaura reaction of 8-iodochrysin, then reduced by LiAlH4 to give the corresponding 3-deoxyanthocyanidins. At pH 1.0 the stable form is the 8-substituted flavylium cation in both compounds. At higher pH values the quinoidal bases are the stable species and some evidence for the 6,8-rearrangement was obtained, but the respective spectral variations are very small. This was overcome by using a modified cyclodextrin (captisol), which favors the formation of the trans-chalcone at the expense of the quinoidal bases. The trans-chalcone was isolated and dissolved in CD3OD/DCl (pD < 1) to give a mixture of the two flavylium isomers. This was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis (recorded in positive ion mode) of the two isomers after separation by HPLC, which gave the same peak ([M]+ m/z 253). The 6-isomer slowly reverts to the most stable 8-isomer. The 6,8-rearrangement was also observed after irradiation of the trans-chalcone (in the presence of captisol) at pH 5. Acidification of this photostationary state gave a mixture of both flavylium cations. The UV/Vis absorption of the flavylium cation (6-isomer) was blueshifted in comparison to the 8-isomer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5617-5626
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Organic Chemistry
Volume2017
Issue number37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2017

Keywords

  • 6,8-Rearrangement
  • Cyclodextrins
  • Kinetics
  • Photochemistry
  • Suzuki–Miyaura reaction

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