Despite the considerable benefits of CRM, there is a paucity of research considering CRM adoption stages (evaluation, adoption, and routinization). Thus, we developed a conceptual model using the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework to examine the antecedents that affect CRM adoption stages in firms. We used partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) with data from 277 firms to test the conceptual model. Data quality and integration, top management support and competitive pressure positively influence CRM evaluation. Technology competence, data quality and integration, top management support and CRM evaluation positively influence CRM adoption. However competitive pressure negatively affects CRM adoption. Finally, competitive pressure and CRM adoption positively influence CRM routinization. Interestingly, each included construct influences every CRM adoption stage differently.
- Adoption stages
- Customer relationship management (CRM)
- Data quality and integration
- Information technology (IT)
- Technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework