Research is needed on effective servitization by multinational enterprises. This study examines whether Manufacturing Multinational Enterprises (MMNEs) can obtain better servitization outcomes by partnering with Knowledge Intensive Business Service (KIBS) firms and or by internationalizing their service function. In addition, the paper analyses the centralization of management decisions of human resources as an organizational mechanism to overcome coordination failure between product and service units. Our primary research data contain survey responses from 285 MMNEs collected in cooperation with an industry partner. Results show that cross-border strategic alliances and expertise decision centralization are critical to enhance product-service innovation.
- Cross-border alliances
- Expertise decision centralization
- Human resources
- International partnerships
- Product-service innovation