Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. How T2D affects pulmonary endothelial function is not well characterized. We investigated the effects of T2D progression on contractility machinery and endothelial function in the pulmonary and systemic circulation and the mechanisms promoting the dysfunction, using pulmonary artery (PA) and aorta. A high-fat (HF, 3 weeks 60% lipid-rich diet) and a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHSu, combined 60% lipid-rich diet and 35% sucrose during 25 weeks) groups were used as prediabetes and T2D rat models. We found that T2D progression differently affects endothelial function and vascular contractility in the aorta and PA, with the contractile machinery being altered in the PA and aorta in prediabetes and T2D animals; and endothelial function being affected in both models in the aorta but only affected in the PA of T2D animals, meaning that PA is more resistant than aorta to endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, PA and systemic endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats were associated with alterations in the nitrergic system and inflammatory pathways. PA dysfunction in T2D involves endothelial wall mineralization. The understanding of the mechanisms behind PA dysfunction in T2D can lead to significant advances in both preventative and therapeutic treatments of pulmonary disease-associated diabetes.