Tracking biochemical changes during adventitious root formation in olive (Olea europaea L.)

Sara Porfirio, Maria Leonilde Calado, Carlos Noceda, Maria Joao Cabrita, Marco Gomes da Silva, Parastoo Azadi, Augusto Peixe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The activity of oxidative enzymes and the levels of free auxins were determined during adventitious root formation in olive explants. Rooting trials were performed both with in vitro-cultured microshoots of the cultivar 'Galega Vulgar', treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) + IBA, as well as with semi-hardwood cuttings of the cultivars 'Galega Vulgar' (difficult-to-root) and 'Cobrancosa' (easy-to-root), treated with IBA. The auxin (IBA) was used in all experiments as a rooting promoter, while SHAM was used in micropropagation trials as rooting inhibitor, providing a negative control. Free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IBA concentrations were determined in microshoots, as well as in semi-hardwood cuttings, throughout the rooting period at pre-established time-points. At the same time-points, the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidases (PPO), peroxidases (PDX), and IAA oxidase (IAAox) was evaluated in the microshoots. Microshoots treated with SHAM + IBA revealed higher PDX and IAAox activity, as well as lower PPO activity, than those treated only with IBA. IAA levels were higher in IBA-treated microshoots during induction phase, but lower during early initiation phase. In contrast, free IBA levels were higher in microshoots treated with SHAM + IBA during induction, but lower during initiation. A similar pattern of free auxin levels was observed in semi-hardwood cuttings of the two contrasting cultivars under evaluation. The similarities found on the auxin patterns of microshoots treated with SHAM and those of semi-hardwood cuttings of the difficult-to-root olive cultivar allow considering SHAM a reliable control for when simulation of a difficult-to-root behavior is necessary. The inhibitory effect of SHAM in root formation could be related with 1) the inhibition of alternative oxidase (AOX), leading to a downregulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways, which would decrease the concentration of phenolic substrates for PPO; 2) an increase in IAAox activity resulting in lower free IAA levels or; 3) a defective conversion of IBA into IAA. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-53
Number of pages13
JournalScientia Horticulturae
Volume204
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)
  • Oxidative enzymes
  • Phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway
  • Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)
  • INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID RESPONSE
  • MUNG BEAN SEEDLINGS
  • ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE
  • PEROXIDASE-ACTIVITY
  • POLYPHENOL OXIDASE
  • PLANT PEROXIDASES
  • STEM CUTTINGS
  • CELL-WALL
  • MICROPROPAGATED SHOOTS
  • VITIS-VINIFERA

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