Toxicity of fipronil and 2,4-D formulations (alone and in a mixture) to the tropical amphipod Hyalella meinerti

Thandy Junio da Silva Pinto, Raquel Aparecida Moreira, Laís Conceição Menezes da Silva, Maria Paula Cardoso Yoshii, Bianca Veloso Goulart, Priscille Dreux Fraga, Victor Luiz da Silva Rolim, Cassiana Carolina Montagner, Michiel Adriaan Daam, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espindola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Conventional farming uses a large volume of pesticides that may reach aquatic ecosystems. This is also the case for the insecticide fipronil and the herbicide 2,4-D, which are widely used in many crops. This study aimed at evaluating the individual and mixture toxicity of these pesticides to the tropical amphipod Hyalella meinerti. To this end, acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted. Chronic bioassays (10 days) were also carried out, in which the body length and dry biomass were evaluated as endpoints. In addition, a complete factorial mixture chronic toxicity test was carried out. H. meinerti was sensitive to fipronil in the acute toxicity tests, with a LC50-96-h of 0.86 μg L−1 (95% CI 0.26–0.46), and no acute effects were observed after 2,4-D exposure even at the highest test concentration of 100 mg L−1. In the chronic toxicity tests, all tested concentrations of both pesticides decreased the growth of H. meinerti, in which losses on biomass reached 45% and 65% for 2,4-D and fipronil, respectively. The pesticide mixture indicated antagonism although it still significantly decreased the body growth. The results obtained indicate a high sensitivity of H. meinerti exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations, demonstrating that there are risks for the species in real field conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38308-38321
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number28
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Antagonism
  • DMA® 806BR
  • Growth
  • Herbicide
  • Insecticide
  • Macroinvertebrate
  • Pesticides
  • Regent® 800WG


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