Towards a rapid sequencing-based molecular surveillance and mosaicism investigation of Toxoplasma gondii

Anabela Vilares, Vítor Borges, Daniel Sampaio, Idalina Ferreira, Susana Martins, Luis Vieira, Maria João Gargaté, João Paulo Gomes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Advances in molecular epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii are hampered by technical and cost-associated hurdles underlying the acquisition of genomic data from parasites. In order to implement an enhanced genotyping approach for molecular surveillance of T. gondii, we applied a multi-locus amplicon-based sequencing strategy to samples associated with human infection. This approach, targeting genome-dispersed polymorphic loci potentially involved in adaptation and virulence, genetically discriminated almost all 68 studied strains and revealed a scenario of marked genomic mosaicism. Two-thirds (n = 43) of all strains were classified as recombinant, although recombination seemed to be linked to the classical archetypal lineage. While 92% of the Sag2 archetype I strains revealed genetic mosaicism, only 45% of Sag2 archetype II strains were identified as recombinant. Contrarily to the virulence-associated archetype I, most type II strains (regardless of their recombination background) were non-virulent in mouse. Besides Sag2, some of the newly studied loci (namely the type I/I-like alleles of Sag1, B17, PK1, and Sag3 and type III/III-like alleles of TgM-A) constitute promising candidates to rapidly infer T. gondii mouse virulence. Our successful attempt to capture microsatellite length variation launches good perspectives for the straightforward transition from the laborious intensive historical method to more informative next-generation sequencing (NGS)/bioinformatics-based methodologies. Overall, while T. gondii whole-genome sequencing will be hardly feasible in most laboratories, this study shows that a discrete loci panel has the potential to improve the molecular epidemiology of T. gondii towards a better monitoring of circulating genotypes with clinical importance.

Original languageEnglish
JournalParasitology Research
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020

Fingerprint

Mosaicism
Toxoplasma
Toxoplasma gondii
monitoring
Virulence
molecular epidemiology
loci
virulence
Molecular Epidemiology
Genetic Recombination
Alleles
Genome
alleles
genomics
genome
mice
Computational Biology
bioinformatics
Microsatellite Repeats
genotyping

Keywords

  • Loci
  • Next-generation sequencing
  • Toxoplasma gondii

Cite this

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title = "Towards a rapid sequencing-based molecular surveillance and mosaicism investigation of Toxoplasma gondii",
abstract = "Advances in molecular epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii are hampered by technical and cost-associated hurdles underlying the acquisition of genomic data from parasites. In order to implement an enhanced genotyping approach for molecular surveillance of T. gondii, we applied a multi-locus amplicon-based sequencing strategy to samples associated with human infection. This approach, targeting genome-dispersed polymorphic loci potentially involved in adaptation and virulence, genetically discriminated almost all 68 studied strains and revealed a scenario of marked genomic mosaicism. Two-thirds (n = 43) of all strains were classified as recombinant, although recombination seemed to be linked to the classical archetypal lineage. While 92{\%} of the Sag2 archetype I strains revealed genetic mosaicism, only 45{\%} of Sag2 archetype II strains were identified as recombinant. Contrarily to the virulence-associated archetype I, most type II strains (regardless of their recombination background) were non-virulent in mouse. Besides Sag2, some of the newly studied loci (namely the type I/I-like alleles of Sag1, B17, PK1, and Sag3 and type III/III-like alleles of TgM-A) constitute promising candidates to rapidly infer T. gondii mouse virulence. Our successful attempt to capture microsatellite length variation launches good perspectives for the straightforward transition from the laborious intensive historical method to more informative next-generation sequencing (NGS)/bioinformatics-based methodologies. Overall, while T. gondii whole-genome sequencing will be hardly feasible in most laboratories, this study shows that a discrete loci panel has the potential to improve the molecular epidemiology of T. gondii towards a better monitoring of circulating genotypes with clinical importance.",
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Towards a rapid sequencing-based molecular surveillance and mosaicism investigation of Toxoplasma gondii. / Vilares, Anabela; Borges, Vítor; Sampaio, Daniel; Ferreira, Idalina; Martins, Susana; Vieira, Luis; Gargaté, Maria João; Gomes, João Paulo.

In: Parasitology Research, 2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Towards a rapid sequencing-based molecular surveillance and mosaicism investigation of Toxoplasma gondii

AU - Vilares, Anabela

AU - Borges, Vítor

AU - Sampaio, Daniel

AU - Ferreira, Idalina

AU - Martins, Susana

AU - Vieira, Luis

AU - Gargaté, Maria João

AU - Gomes, João Paulo

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - Advances in molecular epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii are hampered by technical and cost-associated hurdles underlying the acquisition of genomic data from parasites. In order to implement an enhanced genotyping approach for molecular surveillance of T. gondii, we applied a multi-locus amplicon-based sequencing strategy to samples associated with human infection. This approach, targeting genome-dispersed polymorphic loci potentially involved in adaptation and virulence, genetically discriminated almost all 68 studied strains and revealed a scenario of marked genomic mosaicism. Two-thirds (n = 43) of all strains were classified as recombinant, although recombination seemed to be linked to the classical archetypal lineage. While 92% of the Sag2 archetype I strains revealed genetic mosaicism, only 45% of Sag2 archetype II strains were identified as recombinant. Contrarily to the virulence-associated archetype I, most type II strains (regardless of their recombination background) were non-virulent in mouse. Besides Sag2, some of the newly studied loci (namely the type I/I-like alleles of Sag1, B17, PK1, and Sag3 and type III/III-like alleles of TgM-A) constitute promising candidates to rapidly infer T. gondii mouse virulence. Our successful attempt to capture microsatellite length variation launches good perspectives for the straightforward transition from the laborious intensive historical method to more informative next-generation sequencing (NGS)/bioinformatics-based methodologies. Overall, while T. gondii whole-genome sequencing will be hardly feasible in most laboratories, this study shows that a discrete loci panel has the potential to improve the molecular epidemiology of T. gondii towards a better monitoring of circulating genotypes with clinical importance.

AB - Advances in molecular epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii are hampered by technical and cost-associated hurdles underlying the acquisition of genomic data from parasites. In order to implement an enhanced genotyping approach for molecular surveillance of T. gondii, we applied a multi-locus amplicon-based sequencing strategy to samples associated with human infection. This approach, targeting genome-dispersed polymorphic loci potentially involved in adaptation and virulence, genetically discriminated almost all 68 studied strains and revealed a scenario of marked genomic mosaicism. Two-thirds (n = 43) of all strains were classified as recombinant, although recombination seemed to be linked to the classical archetypal lineage. While 92% of the Sag2 archetype I strains revealed genetic mosaicism, only 45% of Sag2 archetype II strains were identified as recombinant. Contrarily to the virulence-associated archetype I, most type II strains (regardless of their recombination background) were non-virulent in mouse. Besides Sag2, some of the newly studied loci (namely the type I/I-like alleles of Sag1, B17, PK1, and Sag3 and type III/III-like alleles of TgM-A) constitute promising candidates to rapidly infer T. gondii mouse virulence. Our successful attempt to capture microsatellite length variation launches good perspectives for the straightforward transition from the laborious intensive historical method to more informative next-generation sequencing (NGS)/bioinformatics-based methodologies. Overall, while T. gondii whole-genome sequencing will be hardly feasible in most laboratories, this study shows that a discrete loci panel has the potential to improve the molecular epidemiology of T. gondii towards a better monitoring of circulating genotypes with clinical importance.

KW - Loci

KW - Next-generation sequencing

KW - Toxoplasma gondii

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