Time series analysis of survival and oviposition cycle duration of Anopheles funestus (Giles) in Mozambique

Jacques D. Charlwood, Thomas A. Smith, Ayubo Kampango, Erzelia V.E. Tomas, Nakul Chitnis

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Background: Survival and gonotrophic cycle duration are important determinants of the vectorial capacity of malaria vectors but there are a limited number of approaches to estimate these quantities from field data. Time-series of observations of mosquitoes at different stages in the life-cycle are under-used. Methods: Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were caught using various methods over a 7.6-year period in Furvela, Mozambique. Survival and oviposition cycle duration were estimated using (i) an existing time-series approach for analysing dissections of mosquitoes caught in light-traps, extended to allow for variability in the duration of the cycle; (ii) an established approach for estimating cycle duration from resting collection data; (iii) a novel time-series approach fitted to numbers and categories of mosquitoes caught in exit-traps. Results: Data were available from 7,396, 6,041 and 1,527 trap-nights for exit-traps, light-traps and resting collections respectively. Estimates of cycle duration varied considerably between the different methods. The estimated proportion of female mosquitoes surviving each day of 0.740 (95% credible interval [0.650–0.815]) derived from light-trap data was much lower than the estimated daily survival of male mosquitoes from the model fitted to exit-trap data (0.881, 95% credible interval [0.747–0.987]). There was no tendency for the oviposition cycle to become shorter at higher temperature while the odds of survival of females through the cycle was estimated to be multiplied by 1.021 for every degree of mean weekly temperature increase (95% credible interval [0.991–1.051]). There was negligible temperature dependence and little inter-annual variation in male survival. Discussion: The time-series approach fitted to the exit-traps suggests that male An. funestus have higher survival than do females, and that male survival was temperature independent and unaffected by the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The patterns of temperature dependence in females are at variance with results of laboratory studies. Time series approaches have the advantage for estimating survival that they do not depend on representative sampling of mosquitoes over the whole year. However, the estimates of oviposition cycle duration were associated with considerable uncertainty, which appears to be due to variability between insects in the duration of the resting period, and the estimates based on exit-trap data are sensitive to assumptions about relative trapping efficiencies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15230
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Anopheles funestus
  • Entomology
  • Feeding cycle duration
  • Feeding cycle model
  • Mosquito
  • Mozambique
  • Oviposition cycle duration
  • Statistics
  • Survival
  • Time series analysis


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