Thermodynamics and kinetics of Cyanidin 3-glucoside and Caffeine co-pigments

Piedad M. Limón, Raquel Gavara, Fernando Jorge da Silva Pina

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9 Citations (Scopus)


The multiequilibrium system of reactions of cyanidin 3-glucoside at acidic and mildly acidic pH was studied in the presence of caffeine as a copigment. The thermodynamic and kinetic constants were determined using the so-called direct and reverse pH jump experiments that were followed by conventional UV-vis spectroscopy or stopped flow coupled to a UV-vis detector, depending on the rate of the monitored process. Compared with that of free anthocyanin, the copigmentation with caffeine extends the domain of the flavylium cation up to less acidic pH values, while in a moderately acidic medium, the quinoidal base becomes more stabilized. As a consequence, the hydration to give the colorless hemiketal is difficult over the entire range of pH values. At pH 1, two adducts were found for the flavylium cation-caffeine interaction, with stoichiometries of 1:1 and 1:2 and association constants of 161 M-1 (K-1) and 21 M-1 (K-2), respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5245-5251
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


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