Background. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) are endogenously produced gaseous autacoids that regulate a number of physiological processes, including the inflammatory response, cell death and proliferation, neural transmission and smooth muscle tone. Objective/methods: The current review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of all recent patent applications that address the potential therapeutic applications of CO and H2S. Results/conclusion: Beyond the direct administration of CO and H2S, this review highlights the therapeutic applications of a variety of gas-releasing molecules that are being developed to deliver CO and H2S to diseased tissues at therapeutic doses. The term autacoid, which, in addition to its pharmacological use to describe a locally-acting hormone, literally translates from Greek as 'self-drug', seems to particularly well describe the current approach to capture the potential therapeutic use of these two gasotransmitters. In summary, we can conclude that there is a markedly growing interest in harnessing the tissue-protective actions of CO and H2S.