The use of effect biomarkers in chemical mixtures risk assessment: are they still important?

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Human epidemiological studies with biomarkers of effect play an invaluable role in identifying health effects with chemical exposures and in disease prevention. Effect biomarkers that measure genetic damage are potent tools to address the carcinogenic and/or mutagenic potential of chemical exposures, increasing confidence in regulatory risk assessment decision-making processes. The micronucleus (MN) test is recognized as one of the most successful and reliable assays to assess genotoxic events, which are associated with exposures that may cause cancer. To move towards the next generation risk assessment is crucial to establish bridges between standard approaches, new approach methodologies (NAMs) and tools for increase the mechanistically-based biological plausibility in human studies, such as the adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) framework. This paper aims to highlight the still active role of MN as biomarker of effect in the evolution and applicability of new methods and approaches in human risk assessment, with the positive consequence, that the new methods provide a deeper knowledge of the mechanistically-based biology of these endpoints.

Original languageEnglish
Article number503768
JournalMutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024


  • Adverse outcome pathways
  • Chemical mixtures
  • Genotoxicity
  • Human risk assessment
  • Micronucleus
  • New approach methodologies


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