Although the arterial supply of the human testis via the testicular artery is a well-studied subject, the pattern of approach that this vessel takes when reaching the gland is, on the other hand, not as well described. Based on the observation of angiological preparations of 196 adult human testes, the authors describe the presence of transmediastinal testicular vessels in one fourth of the cases. These were of two varieties, as regards the testicular mediastinum: centrifugal and centripetal. The centrifugal vessels were briefly mentioned in the nineteenth century scientific literature, undescribed in twentieth century anatomical studies and only recently referred to in color Doppler ultrasonographic studies; the centripetal vessels are previously undescribed. The authors propose the terms transmediastinal centrifugal and centripetal arteries to designate them.