The self-organizing map, the Geo-SOM, and relevant variants for geosciences

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88 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we explore the advantages of using Self-Organized Maps (SOMs) when dealing with geo-referenced data. The standard SOM algorithm is presented, together with variants which are relevant in the context of the analysis of geo-referenced data. We present a new SOM architecture, the Geo-SOM, which was especially designed to take into account spatial dependency. The strengths and weaknesses of the different variants proposed are shown through a set of tests based on artificial data. A real world application of these techniques is given through the analysis of geodemographic data from Lisbon's metropolitan area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-163
Number of pages9
JournalComputers and Geosciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005


  • Geo-referenced data
  • Geo-SOM
  • Self-Organizing Map
  • SOM variants


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