Secreted trophic factors are key to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the retina, as they regulate cellular pathways responsible for survival, function, and response to injury. Nevertheless, these same factors can also be involved in retinal pathologies, as a consequence of the impairment of the secretory function of cells. The cells considered as major contributors to the retinal secretome are the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and Müller cells. Their role in the pathophysiology of the most common neovascular pathologies in the retina - Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), and Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) - is highlighted in this short review, together with current trophic factor-based therapies, which are mainly focused on controlling inflammation, cell survival, and angiogenesis.
- Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)
- Muller cells