The Portuguese version of the Placental Paradigm Questionnaire at the third trimester of pregnancy

M. Eduarda Carvalho, J. M. Miranda Justo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The purpose of this article is to present the adaptation and factorial validation of the Placental Paradigm Questionnaire (PPQ) for the Portuguese population. Method: The original PPQ was translated into Portuguese (designated as ‘Questionário do Paradigma Placentário’, QPP) and then back-translated into English; the Portuguese and the back-translated versions were evaluated by a panel of experts. The participants were 189 pregnant Portuguese women, interviewed twice while waiting for sonogram examinations. At first, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestation, an Informed Consent was obtained as well as sociodemographic information. Between 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, participants answered the QPP. Results: The principal components analysis showed items to load mainly on two factors: in factor one, loads ranged between.778 and.522, while in factor 2, loads ranged between.658 and.421. Accordingly, two subscales of prenatal maternal orientation to motherhood were considered: (1) Facilitator Factor (α =.815) and Regulator Factor (α =.770). Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the Portuguese version of the QPP is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of prenatal orientation for motherhood. In the future, QPP measurements will allow to relate maternal orientation to motherhood with other variables of psychic organisation in pregnancy and after birth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)478-487
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2015


  • attitudes
  • emotional
  • mothers
  • pregnancy
  • quantitative methods


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