The Percentage of [-2]Pro-Prostate-Specific Antigen and the Prostate Health Index Outperform Prostate-Specific Antigen and the Percentage of Free Prostate-Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer and Can Be Used as Reflex Tests

Manuel M. Garrido, José C. Marta, Rui M. Bernardino, João Guerra, Francisco Fernandes, Maria H. Pereira, Ruy Ribeiro, Stefan Holdenrieder, Luís C. Pinheiro, João T. Guimarães

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Abstract

CONTEXT.—: There is a need to avoid the overdiagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and to find more specific biomarkers. OBJECTIVE.—: To evaluate the clinical utility of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen ([-2]proPSA) derivatives in detecting clinically significant PCa (csPCa) and to compare it with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and with the percentage of free PSA (%fPSA). DESIGN.—: Two hundred thirty-seven men (PSA: 2-10 ng/mL) scheduled for a prostate biopsy were enrolled. Parametric and nonparametric tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and logistic regression analysis were applied. Outcomes were csPCa and overall PCa. RESULTS.—: Both [-2]proPSA derivatives were significantly higher in csPCa and overall PCa (P < .001). The areas under the curves for the prediction of csPCa were higher for the percentage of [-2]proPSA (%[-2]proPSA) (0.781) and the prostate health index (PHI) (0.814) than for PSA (0.651) and %fPSA (0.724). There was a gain of 11% in diagnostic accuracy when %[-2]proPSA or PHI were added to a base model with PSA and %fPSA. Twenty-five percent to 29% of biopsies could have been spared with %[-2]proPSA (cutoff: ≥1.25%) and PHI (cutoff: ≥27), missing 10% of csPCas. The same results could have been achieved by using [-2]proPSA as a reflex test, when %fPSA was 25% or less (cutoffs: ≥1.12% and ≥24 for %[-2]proPSA and PHI, respectively). CONCLUSIONS.—: The [-2]proPSA derivatives improve the diagnostic accuracy of csPCa when the PSA value is between 2 and 10 ng/mL, sparing unnecessary biopsies and selecting patients for active surveillance. [-2]proPSA can be used as a reflex test when %fPSA is 25% or less, without reducing the diagnostic accuracy for csPCa and the number of spared biopsies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)691-700
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of pathology & laboratory medicine
Volume146
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022

Keywords

  • Biopsy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Reflex

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