Purpose: To learn the weaknesses and strengths of safety culture as expressed by the dimensions measured by the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) at hospitals in the various cultural contexts. The aim of this study was to identify studies that have used the HSOPSC to collect data on safety culture at hospitals; to survey their findings in the safety culture dimensions and possible contributions to improving the quality and safety of hospital care.
Data sources: Medline (via PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus were searched from 2005 to July 2016 in English, Portuguese and Spanish.
Study selection: Studies were identified using specific search terms and inclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles, reporting on 21 countries, was included.
Data extraction: Scores were extracted by patient safety culture dimensions assessed by the HSOPSC. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the STROBE Statement.
Results: The dimensions that proved strongest were 'Teamwork within units' and 'Organisational learning-continuous improvement'. Particularly weak dimensions were 'Non-punitive response to error', 'Staffing', 'Handoffs and transitions' and 'Teamwork across units'.
Conclusion: The studies revealed a predominance of hospital organisational cultures that were underdeveloped or weak as regards patient safety. For them to be effective, safety culture evaluation should be tied to strategies designed to develop safety culture hospital-wide.