Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide in both men and women. Conventional chemotherapy has failed to provide long-term benefits for many patients and in the past decade, important advances were made to understand the underlying molecular/genetic mechanisms of lung cancer, allowing the unfolding of several other pathological entities. Considering these molecular subtypes, and the appearance of promising targeted therapies, an effective personalized control of the disease has emerged, nonetheless benefiting a small proportion of patients. Although immunotherapy has also appeared as a new hope, it is still not accessible to the majority of patients with lung cancer. The metabolism of energy and biomass is the basis of cellular survival. This is true for normal cells under physiological conditions and it is also true for pathophysiologically altered cells, such as cancer cells. Thus, knowledge of the metabolic remodelling that occurs in cancer cells in the sense of, on one hand, surviving in the microenvironment of the organ in which the tumour develops and, on the other hand, escaping from drugs conditioned microenvironment, is essential to understand the disease and to develop new therapeutic approaches.