Anchusa officinalis (L.) interacts with various microorganisms including arbuscular myc-orrhizal fungi (AMF). Recently, the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 has been shown to modulate the metabolome of A. officinalis. However, little information is available on the impact that different AMF species may have on primary and secondary plant metabolites. In this study, four AMF species belonging to the genus Rhizophagus (R. irregularis MUCL 41833, R. intraradices MUCL 49410, R. clarus MUCL 46238, R. aggregatus MUCL 49408), were evaluated for their potential to modulate A. officinalis metabolome under controlled semi-hydroponic cultivation conditions. An untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed using UHPLC-HRMS followed by a multivariate data analysis. Forty-two compounds were reported to be highly modulated in relation to the different AMF associations. Among them, six new secondary metabolites were tentatively identified including two acetyl-and four malonyl-phenylpropanoid and saponin derivatives, all presenting a common substitution at position C-6 of the glycosidic moiety. In addition, an enhanced accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites was observed for R. irregularis and R. intraradices, showing a stronger effect on A. officinalis metabolome compared to R. clarus and R. aggregatus. Therefore, our data suggest that different AMF species may specifically modulate A. officinalis metabolite production.
- Anchusa officinalis (L.)
- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
- circulatory semi-hydroponic cultivation system
- primary and secondary metabolites