In this chapter, a survey of research in machine ethics is presented, providing the context and the motivation for our investigations. The survey concerns the individual realm of machine ethics, whereas the background to other realm, the collective one, is broached in Chap. 9, namely Sects. 9.1 and 9.2.1. The first realm views computation as a vehicle for representing moral cognition of an agent and its reasoning thereof, which motivates our investigation for employing Logic Programming (LP) knowledge representation and reasoning features with respect to the individual realm of machine ethics. On the other hand, the second realm emphasizes the emergence, in a population, of evolutionarily stable moral norms, of fair and just cooperation, that ably discards free riders and deceivers, to the advantage of the whole evolved population. It provides a motivation of our research for introducing cognitive abilities, such as intention recognition, commitment, revenge, apology, and forgiveness, to reinforce the emergence of cooperation in the collective realm of machine ethics.