The GAIN Registry — a New Prospective Study for Patients with Multi-organ Autoimmunity and Autoinflammation

Paulina Staus, Stephan Rusch, Sabine El-Helou, Gabriele Müller, Máté Krausz, Ulf Geisen, Andrés Caballero-Oteyza, Renate Krüger, Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch, Maria Fasshauer, Ulrich Baumann, Bimba Franziska Hoyer, João Farela Neves, Michael Borte, Maria Carrabba, Fabian Hauck, Stephan Ehl, Peter Bader, Horst von BernuthFaranaz Atschekzei, Mikko R.J. Seppänen, Klaus Warnatz, Alexandra Nieters, Gerhard Kindle, Bodo Grimbacher

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Patient registries are a very important and essential tool for investigating rare diseases, as most physicians only see a limited number of cases during their career. Diseases of multi-organ autoimmunity and autoinflammation are especially challenging, as they are characterized by diverse clinical phenotypes and highly variable expressivity. The GAIN consortium (German multi-organ Auto Immunity Network) developed a dataset addressing these challenges. ICD-11, HPO, and ATC codes were incorporated to document various clinical manifestations and medications with a defined terminology. The GAIN dataset comprises detailed information on genetics, phenotypes, medication, and laboratory values. Between November 2019 and July 2022, twelve centers from Europe have registered 419 patients with multi-organ autoimmunity or autoinflammation. The median age at onset of symptoms was 13 years (IQR 3–28) and the median delay from onset to diagnosis was 5 years (IQR 1–14). Of 354 (84.5%) patients who were genetically tested, 248 (59.2%) had a defined monogenetic cause. For 87 (20.8%) patients, no mutation was found and for 19 (4.5%), the result was pending. The most common gene affected was NFkB1 (48, 11.5%), and the second common was CTLA4 (40, 9.5%), both genetic patient groups being fostered by specific research projects within GAIN. The GAIN registry may serve as a valuable resource for research in the inborn error of immunity community by providing a platform for etiological and diagnostic research projects, as well as observational trials on treatment options.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal Of Clinical Immunology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2023


  • Autoimmunity
  • Autoinflammation
  • Epidemiology
  • Immune-dysregulation
  • Inborn error of immunity
  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Rare diseases


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