The friction force mouse-pad and the forearm muscles efforts (preliminary results)

José Martin Miquel Cabeças, Emanuel Santos Ribeiro

Research output: Working paper


The objective of the article is to evaluate the impact of the friction force mouse-pad in the contraction level of the forearm muscles M. extensor carpi ulnaris, M. extensor digitorum and M. extensor carpi radialis longus. A standard protocol of mouse movements was performed involving horizontal, vertical and diagonal mouse displacements drag-and-drop type. The operators were instructed to execute the protocol with their normal working speed. The movements protocol were performed by each subject (n=17) with three selected pairs mouse-pad, classified as low, medium and high friction force pairs. The mean time to execute the protocol with each mouse was ~138s. Mean values of ~13%MVE and ~17%MVE were found in the M. extensor carpi ulnaris and in the M. extensor digitorum respectively when performing the movements’ protocol. A 8.1% increase in %MVE was observed in the M. extensor digitorum and a 9.4% increase in %MVE was observed in the M. extensor carpi ulnaris when the high friction force pair was operated, relatively to the low friction force pair (p<0.05). The main preliminary conclusions of this study is that operating a high friction force mouse-pad may increase the risk to symptoms or disorders in the wrist due to an increase in the forearm muscles contraction levels, particularly during work with drawing applications.
Original languageUnknown
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

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