In two recent papers Enders and Lee (2009) and Becker, Enders and Lee (2006) provide Lagrange multiplier and ordinary least squares de-trended unit root tests, and stationarity tests, respectively, which incorporate a Fourier approximation element in the deterministic component. Such an approach can prove useful in providing robustness against a variety of breaks in the deterministic trend function of unknown form and number. In this article, we generalize the unit root testing procedure based on local generalized least squares (GLS) de-trending proposed by Elliott, Rothenberg and Stock (1996) to allow for a Fourier approximation to the unknown deterministic component in the same way. We show that the resulting unit root tests possess good finite sample size and power properties and the test statistics have stable non-standard distributions, despite the curious result that their limiting null distributions exhibit asymptotic rank deficiency.
- EFFICIENT TESTS