OBJECTIVE: The adjusted effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake during pregnancy on adiposity at birth of healthy full-term appropriate-for-gestational age neonates was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional convenience sample of 100 mother and infant dyads, LCPUFA intake during pregnancy was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with nutrient intake calculated using Food Processor Plus. Linear regression models for neonatal body composition measurements, assessed by air displacement plethysmography and anthropometry, were adjusted for maternal LCPUFA intakes, energy and macronutrient intakes, prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain. RESULT: Positive associations between maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake and ponderal index in male offspring (β = 0.165; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.031-0.299; P = 0.017), and between n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio intake and fat mass (β = 0.021; 95% CI: 0.002- 0.041; P = 0.034) and percentage of fat mass (β = 0.636; 95% CI: 0.125-1.147; P = 0.016) in female offspring were found. CONCLUSION: Using a reliable validated method to assess body composition, adjusted positive associations between maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake and birth size in male offspring and between n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio intake and adiposity in female offspring were found, suggesting that maternal LCPUFA intake strongly influences fetal body composition.