The effect of chloroquine (CQ) on the production pattern of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-10 in female C57BL6 mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS was evaluated during a period of 35 days. Our data confirm that there is a switch from a T helper cell (Th)1 to a Th2 response during malaria infection in this model. Proliferation assays showed a decreased stimulation index in infected mice that was further reduced in infected mice treated with CQ. Noninfected control mice treated with CQ showed an increase production of IFN-γ. However, no detectable changes in IL-4, IL6, and IL-10 production were observed in this group. CQ treatment of infected mice resulted in parasite clarence that was associated with an earlier production of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 when compared with nontreated infected mice. We suggest that this earlier switch to a Th2 response is a consequence of parasite killing rather than CQ interference with cytokine production.