The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

John Fayyad, Nancy A. Sampson, Irving Hwang, Tomasz Adamowski, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Laura H S G Andrade, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G. Karam, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O’Neill, Beth Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-VillaMargreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Miguel Xavier, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ronald C. Kessler, Tomasz Adamowski, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Mohammad Al-Kaisy, Abdullah Al Subaie, Jordi Alonso, Yasmin Altwaijri, Laura Helena Andrade, Lukoye Atwoli, Randy P. Auerbach, William G. Axinn, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Robert M. Bossarte, Evelyn J. Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, Brendan Bunting, Ernesto Caffo, José M. Caldas de Almeida, Graca Cardoso, Alfredo H. Cia, Stephanie Chardoul, Somnath Chatterji, Alexandre Chiavegatto Filho, Pim Cuijpers, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Ron de Graaf, Peter de Jonge, Koen Demyttenaere, David D. Ebert, Sara Evans-Lacko, John Fayyad, Fabian Fiestas, Silvia Florescu, Barbara Forresi, Sandro Galea, Laura Germine, Stephen E. Gilman, Dirgha J. Ghimire, Meyer D. Glantz, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yanling He, Hristo Hinkov, Chi yi Hu, Yueqin Huang, Aimee Nasser Karam, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Ronald C. Kessler, Andrzej Kiejna, Karestan C. Koenen, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Luise Lago, Carmen Lara, Sing Lee, Jean Pierre Lepine, Itzhak Levav, Daphna Levinson, Zhaorui Liu, Silvia S. Martins, Herbert Matschinger, John J. McGrath, Katie A. McLaughlin, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Zeina Mneimneh, Jacek Moskalewicz, Samuel D. Murphy, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Matthew K. Nock, Siobhan O’Neill, Mark Oakley-Browne, J. Hans Ormel, Beth Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Stephanie Pinder-Amaker, Patryk Piotrowski, Jose Posada-Villa, Ayelet M. Ruscio, Kate M. Scott, Vicki Shahly, Derrick Silove, Tim Slade, Jordan W. Smoller, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Dan J. Stein, Amy E. Street, Hisateru Tachimori, Nezar Taib, Margreet Ten Have, Graham Thornicroft, Yolanda Torres, Maria Carmen Viana, Gemma Vilagut, Elisabeth Wells, David R. Williams, Michelle A. Williams, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Alan M. Zaslavsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

230 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Early online date19 Nov 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Mar 2017

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Comorbidity
  • Disability epidemiology
  • Impairment
  • Prevalence
  • Treatment

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