The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys

K.J. Wardenaar, C.C.W. Lim, A.O. Al-Hamzawi, J. Alonso, L.H. Andrade, C. Benjet, B. Bunting, G. De Girolamo, K. Demyttenaere, S.E. Florescu, O. Gureje, T. Hisateru, C. Hu, Y. Huang, E. Karam, A. Kiejna, J.P. Lepine, F. Navarro-Mateu, M. Oakley Browne, M. PiazzaJ. Posada-Villa, M.L. Ten Have, Y. Torres, M. Xavier, Z. Zarkov, R.C. Kessler, K.M. Scott, P. De Jonge

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128 Citations (Scopus)


Background Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries. Method Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001-2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3-21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6-30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes. Conclusions Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability. © Cambridge University Press 2017.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1744-1760
Number of pages17
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • cross-national studies
  • epidemiology
  • impairment
  • Key words Co-morbidity
  • specific phobia


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