The cross-cultural invariance of the Servant Leadership Survey: A comparative study across eight countries

Dirk Van Dierendonck, Milton Sousa, Sigrun Gunnarsdottir, Andrea Bobbio, Jari Hakanen, Armin Pircher Verdorfer, Emin Cihan Duyan, Raquel Rodriguez-Carvajal

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This paper tests and confirms the cross-cultural equivalence of the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) in eight countries and languages: The Netherlands, Portugal, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Finland. A composite sample consisting of 5201 respondents from eight countries that all filled out the SLS was used. A three-step approach was adopted to test configural invariance, measurement equivalence, and structural equivalence. For the full 30-item version of the SLS, configural invariance and partial measurement equivalence were confirmed. Implications of these results for the use of the SLS within cross-cultural studies are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017


  • servant leadership
  • cross-cultural
  • measurement equivalence

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