The association of milk and dairy consumption with iodine status in pregnant women in Oporto region

Pedro Ferreira, Cátia Pinheiro, Cláudia Matta Coelho, Juliana Guimarães, Gonçalo Pereira, Nara Xavier Moreira, Alice Cortez, Isabella Bracchi, Diogo Pestana, Inês Barreiros Mota, Carmo Prucha, Cristina Martins, Célia Alves Ribeiro, Edgar Pinto, Agostinho Almeida, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Nuno Montenegro, Cláudia Camila Dias, André Moreira-Rosário, Luís Filipe AzevedoAnne Lise Brantsæter, Carla Ramalho, Virgínia Cruz Fernandes, Conceição Calhau, João Costa Leite, Elisa Keating

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The role of milk and dairy products in supplying iodine to pregnant women is unknown in Portugal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between milk and dairy consumption and the iodine status of pregnant women in the IoMum cohort of the Oporto region. Pregnant women were recruited between 10 and 13 weeks of gestation, when they provided a spot urine sample and information on lifestyle and intake of iodine-rich foods. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A total of 468 pregnant women (269 iodine supplement users and 199 non-supplement users) were considered eligible for analysis. Milk (but not yoghurt or cheese) intake was associated with UIC, in the whole population (p = 0.02) and in the non-supplement users (p = 0.002), but not in the supplement users (p = 0.29). In non-supplement users, adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that milk consumption < 3 times a month was associated with a 5 times increased risk of having UIC < 50 μg/L when compared to milk consumption ≥ 2 times a day (OR = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.55-18.78; p = 0.008). The highest UIC was observed in supplement users who reported consuming milk once a day (160 μg/L). Milk, but not yoghurt or cheese, was positively associated with iodine status of pregnant women. Despite the observed positive association, daily milk consumption may not be sufficient to ensure adequate iodine intake in this population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 1314 - 1322
JournalBritish Journal Of Nutrition
Issue number9
Early online date14 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2021


  • dairy products
  • Iodine status
  • milk
  • pregnancy


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