(1) Introduction: vitamin D may maintain the telomere length, either directly or via the inflammation effect and/or modulating the rate of cell proliferation. Whilst results from crosssectional studies investigating the association between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length have been mixed, there is a dearth of data from prospective studies which have assessed these associations. This study aimed to examine the association between 25(OH)D concentration in plasma and telomere length in blood cells in very-old adults (≥85 years old) at baseline, 18 months and 36 months by controlling for related lifestyle factors. (2) Methodology: our prospective cohort study comprised 775 participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study who had 25(OH)D measurements at baseline. Plasma 25(OH)D was stratified as <25 nmol/L (low), 25–50 nmol/L (moderate) and >50 nmol/L (high). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction at baseline, 18 and 36 months from baseline. (3) Results: a positive significant association was found between 25(OH)D concentration and telomere length amongst very-old participants at baseline (95% CI = 12.0–110.3, B = 61.2 ± 5.0, p = 0.015). This association was negative at 18 months (95% CI = −59.9–−7.5, B = −33.7 ± 13.3, p = 0.012) but was non-significant at 36 months. (4) Conclusion: Circulating 25(OH)D concentration shows inconsistent relationships with telomere length over time in very-old (85+ year old) adults.
- Telomere length
- Vitamin D