The crystal structure of porcine seminal plasma spermadhesin PSP-I/ PSP-II heterodimer has been determined in two crystal forms by multiple isomorphous replacement in an hexagonal crystal (space group P6122) and molecular replacement in a trigonal crystal of space group P3221. The crystal structure has been refined at 2.4 Å resolution to an X-factor of 20.0% (R(free) = 25.9%) for 14,809 independent reflections with intensities greater than 2σ(I), with root-mean-square deviations of 0.009 Å and 1.657°from ideal bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. The final model includes 1688 non-hydrogen protein atoms of 221 amino acids and 79 water molecules. PSP-I/PSP-II represents the first crystal structure of a mammalian zona pellucida-binding protein. PSP-II displays a putative carbohydrate-recognition site located around its Asn50. This region shares structural features with sugar binding sites of known lectin structures of the leguminous and galectin families. PSP-I and PSP-II are N-glycosylated at asparagine residues 50 and 98, respectively, and show site heterogeneity. Only the innermost N-acetylglucosamine of PSP-I is defined in the crystal structure. Both subunits of the PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer are built by a single CUB domain architecture. The CUB domain displays a novel fold, which consists of a compact ellipsoidal β-sandwich structure (42 Å x 27 Å x 23 Å) organized into two 5-stranded β-sheets. Each sheet contains parallel and antiparallel β-strands. Two disulphide bridges, which are conserved in all spermadhesin molecules and many CUB domains, crosslink loop LA and strand β4 and loops LE and LG, respectively, at opposite edges of the same face of the domain. The four highly conserved aromatic residues and 15 out of 17 invariant hydrophobic residues, which define the CUB domain signature, display an interior location, suggesting that this hydrophobic core may be essential for maintaining the overall folding of the domain. Most of the hydrophobic core residue characteristics are conserved in the jellyroll topology of certain icosahedral virus capsid proteins, indicating that the CUB domain and the viral proteins share a minimal structural core.
- Carbohydrate-binding protein
- Mammalian fertilization
- Porcine seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II
- Zona pellucida-binding protein