The 10,000-year success story of wheat!

Telma de Sousa, Miguel Ribeiro, Carolina Sabença, Gilberto Igrejas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world as it is used in the production of a diverse range of traditional and modern processed foods. The ancient varieties einkorn, emmer, and spelt not only played an important role as a source of food but became the ancestors of the modern varieties currently grown worldwide. Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) now account for around 95% and 5% of the world production, respectively. The success of this cereal is inextricably associated with the capacity of its grain proteins, the gluten, to form a viscoelastic dough that allows the transformation of wheat flour into a wide variety of staple forms of food in the human diet. This review aims to give a holistic view of the temporal and proteogenomic evolution of wheat from its domestication to the massively produced high-yield crop of our day.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2124
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Breadmaking
  • Celiac disease
  • Gluten
  • Triticum aestivum L
  • Triticum durum Desf
  • Wheat


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