Sustainable Synthetic Approaches for Nitrogen‐Containing Heterocyclic Salts

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Abstract

This chapter presents different sustainable synthetic approaches mainly for the preparation of five‐ and six‐membered nitrogen‐containing nonaromatic and aromatic heterocyclic salts. It includes aromatic N‐heterocycles in order to present an overview of the most promising and comparative sustainable strategies for converting neutral N‐heterocycles or derivatives into salts. The chapter discusses water and aqueous solution reactions, alternative solvents and processes, solvent‐free reactions, microwave approaches, and sonication reactions for each family. It focuses on the synthesis of five‐membered N‐heterocyclic salts containing one nitrogen atom, namely pyrrolidinium, indolium, isoindolium, indolizinium, and pyrrolium salts. Six‐membered N‐heterocycles containing one nitrogen atom include pyridine derivatives such as picoline and lutidine, as well as piperidine and quinoline, among many others. Meanwhile, piperazine, pyridazine, and pyrimidinium are examples of six‐memberedN‐heterocycles containing two nitrogen atoms that have been explored recently for the sustainable preparation of salts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSynthetic Approaches to Nonaromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles
EditorsAna Maria M. M. Faisca Phillips
PublisherWiley
Chapter23
ISBN (Electronic)9781119708841
ISBN (Print)9781119708704
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • five‐membered N‐heterocyclic salts
  • nitrogen‐containing aromatic heterocyclic salts
  • nitrogen‐containing nonaromatic salts
  • six‐membered N‐heterocyclic salts
  • synthetic approaches

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