Sustainable carbon sources for green laser-induced graphene: A perspective on fundamental principles, applications, and challenges

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Since the discovery of laser-induced graphene (LIG), significant advances have been made to obtain green LIG (gLIG) from abundant, eco-friendly, natural, and organic renewable bio-based carbon sources. Recently, some sustainable and cost-effective electronic devices have been designed with gLIG, resulting in diverse solutions to the environmental impact caused by electronic waste (e-waste). However, there are still several challenges that must be addressed regarding the widespread market implementation of gLIG-based products, from synthesis to practical applications. In this review, we focus on sustainable precursor sources, their conversion mechanisms, physical and chemical properties and applications, along with the challenges related to its implementation, showing the future opportunities and perspectives related to this promising new material. Various systems based on gLIG for energy storage, electrocatalysis, water treatment, and sensors have been reported in the literature. Additionally, gLIG has been proposed for ink formulation or incorporation into polymer matrices, to further expand its use to non-carbon-based substrates or applications for which pristine LIG cannot be directly used. In this way, it is possible to apply gLIG on diverse substrates, aiming at emerging wearable and edible electronics. Thus, this review will bring an overview of gLIG developments, in accordance with the European Green Deal, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the new era of internet-of-things, which demands cost-effective electronic components based on the principles of energy efficiency and sustainable production methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number041305
Number of pages28
JournalApplied Physics Reviews
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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