Structural Characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Bacterial Peroxidase—Insights into the Catalytic Cycle of Bacterial Peroxidases

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Abstract

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogenic bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease. The bacterial peroxidase, an enzyme present in the periplasm of this bacterium, detoxifies the cells against hydrogen peroxide and constitutes one of the primary defenses against exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress in this organism. The 38 kDa heterologously produced bacterial peroxidase was crystallized in the mixed-valence state, the active state, at pH 6.0, and the crystals were soaked with azide, producing the first azide-inhibited structure of this family of enzymes. The enzyme binds exogenous ligands such as cyanide and azide, which also inhibit the catalytic activity by coordinating the P heme iron, the active site, and competing with its substrate, hydrogen peroxide. The inhibition constants were estimated to be 0.4 ± 0.1 µM and 41 ± 5 mM for cyanide and azide, respectively. Imidazole also binds and inhibits the enzyme in a more complex mechanism by binding to P and E hemes, which changes the reduction potential of the latest heme. Based on the structures now reported, the catalytic cycle of bacterial peroxidases is revisited. The inhibition studies and the crystal structure of the inhibited enzyme comprise the first platform to search and develop inhibitors that target this enzyme as a possible new strategy against N. gonorrhoeae.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6246
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume24
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Bacterial peroxidase
  • pathogenic bacteria
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • inhibition

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