Steel-copper functionally graded material produced by twin-wire and arc additive manufacturing (T-WAAM)

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In this work, a functionally graded material (FGM) part was fabricated by depositing a Cu-based alloy on top of a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel by twin-wire and arc additive manufacturing (T-WAAM). Copper and steel parts are of interest in many industries since they can combine high thermal/electrical conductivity, wear resistance with excellent mechanical properties. However, mixing copper with steel is difficult due to mismatches in the coefficient of thermal expansion, in the melting temperature, and crystal structure. Moreover, the existence of a miscibility gap during solidification, when the melt is undercooled, causes serious phase separation and segregation during solidification which greatly affects the mechanical properties. Copper and steel control samples and the functionally graded material specimen were fabricated and investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Retained δ-ferrite was found in a Cu matrix at the interface region due to regions with mixed composition. A smooth gradient of hardness and electric conductivity along the FGM sample height was obtained. An ultimate tensile strength of 690 MPa and an elongation at fracture of 16.6% were measured in the FGM part.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110270
JournalMaterials & Design
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Copper alloy
  • Functionally Graded Material (FGM)
  • High strength low alloy steel
  • Miscibility gap
  • Wire and arc additive manufacturing


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