Statistical analysis of Portuguese ready-mixed concrete production

João Nuno Pacheco, Jorge de Brito, Carlos Chastre, Luís Evangelista

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper evaluates and compares the statistics of compressive strength data from three Portuguese ready-mixed concrete plants. A hierarchical model showed that different groups of concrete strength records are not statistically equivalent, even if they were produced in the same plant and using the same concrete composition. This finding is related to autocorrelation. For the same specified strength class, compositions produced less often result in higher average compressive strength and variability. The statistics of one of the plants were quite different from those of the others, even though the concrete of this plant also complied with the specifications. It was found that the average compressive strength of a mix may be quite dependent on the plant that produced it, even if the compressive strength complies with quality control specifications. Conformity with the target slump and strength class was checked following the conformity criteria of EN 206-1 for continuous production. Nonconformity with slump is more frequent than failure to comply with the strength class. A bias factor for reliability analyses was proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-294
Number of pages12
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2019


  • Conformity control
  • Probabilistic analysis
  • Ready-mixed concrete
  • Variability


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