State of the antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance: Science and technology knowledge gap

Charles A B Boucher, Bobkova, MR, Anna M. Geretti, Hung, Chien Ching, R. Kaiser, Marcelin, Anne Geneviève, Streinu-Cercel, Anca, Van Wyk, Jean, Dorr, Patrick K., AM Vandamme

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Abstract

Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence. Several gaps were identified across HIVDR science and technology. A summary of the major gaps is presented, with an expert discussion of their implications within the context of the wider field. Crucial to optimizing the use of ART will be improved understanding of protease inhibitors and, in particular, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) in the context of HIVDR. Limited experience with INSTI represents an important knowledge gap in HIV resistance science. Utilizing such knowledge in a clinical setting relies on accurate testing and analysis of resistance-associated mutations. As next-generation sequencing becomes more widely available, a gap in the interpretation of data is the lack of a defined, clinically relevant threshold of minority variants. Further research will provide evidence on where such thresholds lie and how they can be most effectively applied. Expert discussion identified a series of gaps in our knowledge of HIVDR. Addressing such gaps through further research and characterization will facilitate the optimal use of ART therapies and technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbern.º 1
Pages (from-to)p. 26-41
Number of pages17
JournalAids Reviews
VolumeVol. 20
Issue numbern.º 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018

Keywords

  • Drug resistance, viral
  • Genotyping techniques
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
  • Mutation
  • Sequence analysis

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    Boucher, C. A. B., MR, B., Geretti, A. M., Chien Ching, H., Kaiser, R., Anne Geneviève, M., ... Vandamme, AM. (2018). State of the antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance: Science and technology knowledge gap. Aids Reviews, Vol. 20(n.º 1), p. 26-41. [n.º 1]. https://doi.org/10.24875/AIDSRev.M17000018