SPI drought class prediction using log-linear models applied to wet and dry seasons

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13 Citations (Scopus)


A log-linear modelling for 3-dimensional contingency tables was used with categorical time series of SPI drought class transitions for prediction of monthly drought severity. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) time series in 12- and 6-month time scales were computed for 10 precipitation time series relative to GPCC datasets with 2.5° spatial resolution located over Portugal and with 112 years length (1902–2014). The aim was modelling two-month step class transitions for the wet and dry seasons of the year and then obtain probability ratios – Odds – as well as their respective confidence intervals to estimate how probable a transition is compared to another. The prediction results produced by the modelling applied to wet and dry season separately, for the 6- and the 12-month SPI time scale, were compared with the results produced by the same modelling without the split, using skill scores computed for the entire time series length. Results point to good prediction performances ranging from 70 to 80% in the percentage of corrects (PC) and 50–70% in the Heidke skill score (HSS), with the highest scores obtained when the modelling is applied to the SPI12. The adding up of the wet and dry seasons introduced in the modelling brought improvements in the predictions, of about 0.9–4% in the PC and 1.3–6.8% in the HSS, being the highest improvements obtained in the SPI6 application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-145
Number of pages10
JournalPhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • Confidence intervals
  • Drought class transitions
  • Odds
  • Quasi-association log-linear models


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