Spectroscopic characterization of a masterpiece: The Manueline foral charter of Sintra

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The foral charter attributed by D. Manuel I of Portugal, in 1514, to the village of Sintra was studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, Raman and Infrared micro-spectroscopies. A complete characterization of the pictorial materials used in the production of this masterpiece allowed the identification of iron gall inks used in the written text; pigments such as malachite, azurite, lead white, cinnabar, yellow ochre, gold, silver and carbon black in the illuminations and letterings; filler and binder used in the production of coloring materials and inks. Gum and calcium carbonate were the most recurrent binder and filler identified in this study. Silvering and gilding were mostly obtained by applying ground silver and gold on parchment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)288-296
Number of pages9
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2013


  • μ-FTIR
  • μ-Raman
  • Illuminated manuscript


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