The problem of designing space-time constellations for communication in spread multiple-antenna wireless systems over Rayleigh fading channel is addressed. Using the asymptotic union bound on error probability as design criterion, codes based on general complex-valued symbols are obtained with a gradient search optimization technique. New space-time constellations are constructed and their performance is assessed. Simulation results show that the proposed technique achieves significant performance gains over existing schemes. Since the designed codebooks do not seem to possess any structure that could reduce the memory requirements for storing the corresponding codebook, the problem of designing structured space-time constellations is also addressed. To overcome this problem, a discrete Fourier transform-based approach is adopted to design structured codebooks and their performance is evaluated. The new structured codebooks also demonstrate significant improvement over state-of-art structured schemes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1783-1797
JournalWireless Personal Communications
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


  • Diversity methods
  • Fading channels
  • Performance analysis
  • Spread multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
  • Error probabilities
  • Gradient search optimization
  • Multiple-antenna wireless system
  • Space-time constellations
  • Structured codebooks
  • Design
  • Discrete Fourier transforms
  • Rayleigh fading


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